Married Muscle Fun Facts

This section of Married Muscle offers over 250 snackable facts related to nutritiontraining, and supplementation. All Married Muscle Fun Facts are 100% verifiable. To view reference sources, click here.

  1. Muscle growth is the result of protein synthesis rates exceeding protein breakdown rates. 
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  2. More muscle mass equals a faster metabolic rate. Thus the metabolism can be improved by increasing muscle mass.
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  3. Dehydrating a muscle by 3% can result in a 10% loss of strength and a 8% loss of speed. Hence, it is crucial to stay hydrated
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  4. Building muscle requires a caloric surplus. Burning fat requires a caloric deficit. It is difficult, arguably impossible, to do both concurrently.
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  5. 1 gram of carbohydrate is equal to 4 calories. 1 gram of protein is equal to 4 calories. And 1 gram of fat is equal to 9 calories.
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  6. Men produce significantly more testosterone than women. And women produce significantly more growth hormone than men.
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  7. With proper training and nutrition, expected muscle gains typically range between 16 to 28 pounds per year or 4 to 7 pounds per quarter.
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  • As years of proper training increase, the potential for muscle development will decrease.
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  • The idiom "no pain, no gain" is inaccurate. Pain can equate to injury, and soreness is not an accurate indication of muscle growth.
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  • Rest requirements will vary based on multiple factors; however, the consensus is that 1-2 days of rest between sessions, per muscle group is optimal. 
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  • Consuming adequate vitamin C, dietary fiber, and the amino acid glutamine can promote growth hormone production.
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  • Multiply your body weight by 0.36 to yield your Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of protein. Further multiply your RDA by 2 to be aligned with current dietary guidelines.
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  • The heart is the most important muscle in the human body. A well-trained adult athlete should have a resting heart rate between 40 and 60 beats per minute.
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  • Many sources propose that there are 650 named skeletal muscles in the human body. When including the muscles within a complex muscle, the count is as high as 840.
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  • The strongest muscle in the human body is contestable. Due to varying strength measurement methodologies, there is no one way to calculate a muscles dominance.
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  • Drinking alcohol adversely affects muscle growth. Additionally, alcohol consumption inhibits protein synthesis, reduces energy levels, and impacts hormone production.
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  • You can calculate your maximum heart rate (MHR) by subtracting your age from 220. Then to calculate your target heart rate, multiple your MHR by 50-80%.
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  • Research concludes that time under tension (or TUT for short) does not result in greater muscle size or strength.
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  • An anabolic state is created when nitrogen intake is greater than nitrogen output. A positive nitrogen balance yields muscle growth and faster recovery. Consume protein!
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  • Mr. Olympia predates the Super Bowl by two years as an annual professional championship event. The first Mr. Olympia was held in 1965. The first Super Bowl was held in 1967.
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  • Slow twitch (type I) muscle fibers are associated with endurance. Fast twitch (type II) muscle fibers are associated with strength and power.
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  • The metabolic pathways for protein are less efficient than those for fat or carbohydrates. Thus a diet focused on macronutrients is more effective than calorie counting.
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  • Spot reduction of body fat is a myth. It is not possible to target a specific section of the body for fat loss by dieting or selectively exercising that area.
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  • Research concludes that late night eating does not cause weight gain.
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  • Exercise makes you smarter. Studies infer that aerobic exercise benefits the brain through enhanced cognitive function and new brain cell growth.
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  • Visible abdominal muscles (or six-pack abs) require a low body fat percentage, exercise alone is insufficient.
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  • Research concludes that regular exercise extends life expectancy by as much as 4.5 years.
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  • The recommendation of immediate post-exercise nutrition to maximize hypertrophy is a variable gray area lacking conclusive scientific data.
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  • According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), fish and lean turkey offer the highest protein-to-calorie ratio.
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  • 08/04/16 - Frequent exercise significantly reduces anxiety and depression. 
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  • 08/05/16 - Research indicates that exercise may be an effective treatment for drug addiction.
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  • 08/06/16 - Experts concur that a properly designed and supervised strength training program is both safe and beneficial for children.
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  • 08/07/16: Numerous physiological studies demonstrate that women have a greater resistance to muscle fatigue than men.
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  • 08/08/16: Coffee is the biggest source of antioxidants in the Western diet, it outranks both fruits and vegetables.
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  • 08/09/16: Lactic acid does not cause muscle soreness or fatigue, and on the contrary is a useful and efficient fuel source.
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  • 08/10/16: A diet high in protein has been proven to help preserve muscle mass during a caloric deficit.
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  • 08/11/16: On average, a male age 20-29 can bench press 106% of his body weight for 1 repetition (65% for females). These percentages decline with age.
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  • 08/12/16: There are advantages and disadvantages to both free weights and resistance machines. One method is not better than the other in all cases.
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  • 08/13/16: Contrary to popular belief, static stretching pre-workout does not prevent injury and could adversely affect strength and speed in some athletes.
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  • 08/14/16: Muscle tissue is approximately 15% denser than fat tissue and accounts for roughly 50% of the total human body weight.
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  • 08/15/16: Body mass index (or BMI) is not a reliable indicator of body fat. BMI utilizes height and weight; however, accuracy requires physical measurements.
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  • 08/16/16: Structurally testosterone and estrogen are remarkably similar, yet they have significantly different physiological effects.
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  • 08/17/16: According to the Institute of Medicine, the recommended daily water intake (from all beverages and foods) is approximately 91 ounces for women and 125 ounces for men.
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  • 08/18/16: Exercise can help relieve stress. One exercise session generates 90 to 120 minutes of relaxation response.
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  • 08/19/16: The word gymnasium comes from the Greek word gymnasion, which literally means school for naked exercise.
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  • 08/20/16: Breakfast is not essential for weight loss; however, many studies associate skipping breakfast with a higher risk of obesity.
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  • 08/21/16: Studies show that heterosexual women are biologically predisposed to be more attracted to masculine men during times of fertility.
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  • 08/22/16: According to Phil Heath, current Mr. Olympia, food and supplements can cost “well over $20,000 per year” to be a professional bodybuilder.
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  • 08/23/16: Low-carbohydrate diets date back many years. William Banting wrote one of the first books on the topic in 1863, entitled Letter on Corpulence, Addressed to the Public.
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  • 08/24/16: Research concludes that rest intervals of 2-5 minutes promote greater muscular strength compared to rest intervals of 1 minute.
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  • 08/25/16: The longest time in an abdominal plank position is 8 hours 1 minutes and was achieved by Mao Weidong on May 14, 2016.
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  • 08/26/16: Aerobic exercise (or cardio) does not adversely affect one’s ability to gain muscle.
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  • 08/27/16: Because seltzer is simply water with carbonation added, it does count towards daily water intake.
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  • 08/28/16: Studies indicate that the use of ammonia inhalants in resistance training does not significantly impact performance. Potential psychological benefits require additional research.
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  • 08/29/16: Prior to 1977, bodybuilding was considered strictly a male-oriented sport. The first Ms. Olympia contest was held in 1980.
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  • 08/30/16: Overtraining is defined as constant intense training that does not provide adequate time for recovery. Oftentimes symptoms are subjective.
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  • 08/31/16: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there were 279,100 personal trainers in the United States in 2014. The median annual wage was $36,160 in May 2015.
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  • 09/01/16: Consuming saturated and monounsaturated fats lead to higher testosterone levels, whereas consuming polyunsaturated fats lead to lower testosterone levels.
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  • 09/02/16: Physically inactive people can lose as much as 3-5% of their muscle mass and experience a parallel decline in muscle strength each decade after age 30.
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  • 09/03/16: Muscle confusion is a controversial topic, often defined as varying sets, reps, angles, rest, and weight used during each workout to offset slow growth and adaptation.
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  • 09/04/16: The average flexed bicep size for a male is approximately 13 inches.
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  • 09/05/16: The human physique was classified into three body types (or somatotypes) ectomorph, mesomorph, and endomorph by psychologist William Sheldon in the 1940’s.
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  • 09/06/16: Drinking cold water burns 8 more calories per cup than drinking room temperature water.
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  • 09/07/16: A fitness plateau is the result of the human body adapting to activity levels. This adaptation can result in a metabolic change, burning fewer calories.
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  • 09/08/16: There is no reliable evidence to suggest that calories are burned more efficiently at certain times of the day. Scientific studies on the topic are seemingly contradictory.
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  • 09/09/16: Bodybuilding places emphasis on aesthetics rather than the amount of weight lifted. Powerlifting places emphasis on the amount of weight lifted rather than aesthetics.
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  • 09/10/16: Numerous studies conclude that creatine does increase lean body mass, strength, and athletic performance.
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  • 09/11/16: Resistance training lowers bad cholesterol and blood pressure.
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  • 09/12/16: Electrical muscle stimulation (or EMS) is effective for short-term pain relief. Prolonged use benefits include strength improvement, muscle size, and strength preservation.
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  • 09/13/16: To maximize muscle growth and recovery, you need to minimize muscle breakdown and increase protein synthesis.
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  • 09/14/16: Catabolism is the breaking down of complex molecules into simple ones with the release of energy. As it relates to bodybuilding, catabolism is the breaking down of muscle tissue.
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  • 09/15/16: Muscle is built in an anabolic state. The synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones together with the storage of energy is known as anabolism.
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  • 09/16/16: Cortisol is often referred to as the “stress hormone.” High cortisol levels inhibit the uptake of amino acids into the muscle cells.
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  • 09/17/16: Without carbohydrates, fats become the bodies primary energy source. When energy needs exceed the amount of fat consumed, then the body will use its fat tissue for energy.
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  • 09/18/16: Phil Heath won his sixth consecutive Mr. Olympia title on Sept. 17, 2016. The current record number of wins is eight, held by Lee Haney (84-91) and Ronnie Coleman (98-05).
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  • 09/19/16: Partner assisted final repetitions (or forced reps) extend a set past the point of failure in an effort to induce a greater acute hormonal and neuromuscular response.
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  • 09/20/16: The rate at which the body burns calories is known as the metabolic rate. Age, gender, genetics, hormone levels, and body size and composition affect the metabolic rate.
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  • 09/21/16: By lifting more weight than the muscles can handle, (known as the overload principle) muscle fibers are forced to grow, thus resulting in size and strength.
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  • 09/22/16: The “pump” occurs when muscles become engorged with blood and must stretch to accommodate the excess fluid. This increases protein synthesis and decreases muscle loss.
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  • 09/23/16: Aerobic exercise burns body fat to meet its energy needs. Aerobic literally means with oxygen. Examples include running, walking, cycling, dancing, and swimming.
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  • 09/24/16: The term “dry” is used to describe a water depleted bodybuilder. Bodybuilders purposefully deplete water before a contest to emphasize muscle definition and vascularity.
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  • 09/25/16: Cholesterol is not bad. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are not cholesterol, they are lipoproteins, and transport cholesterol through the blood.
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  • 09/26/16: Both genders require proper estrogen levels. Symptoms of high estrogen include bloating, weight gain, low sex drive, hair loss, mood swings, and trouble sleeping.
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  • 09/27/16: Bulking is “more calories in than calories out.” Cutting is “more calories out than calories in.” Maintenance is when calories in and calories out are equal.
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  • 09/28/16: Studies show increased muscle growth from blood flow restriction (BFR). BFR is the act of cuffing a limb to deliver blood to the target muscle without letting it leave.
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  • 09/29/16: Muscle memory has been proven scientifically. It can be defined as the recruitment of myonuclei during training and their ability to respond after periods of time off (or detraining).
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  • 09/30/16: Influence hypertrophy and recruit muscle fibers by isolating muscles and mentally focusing on contractions. This crucial skill is known as "mind muscle connection" (MMC).
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  • 10/01/16: Studies suggest animal protein sources tend to deliver all essential amino acids, whereas plant protein sources tend to lack one or more essential amino acids.
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  • 10/02/16: Bodybuilders often use slang terms to describe parts of the human anatomy. Arms are referred to as guns, lats are known as wings and legs are called wheels.
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  • 10/03/16: Excess carbohydrate consumption causes high levels of insulin to be released, which can inhibit the fat burning process.
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  • 10/04/16: Lean body mass (LBM) is defined as total body weight minus body fat. LBM is more accurate and thereby superior to the body mass index (BMI) for body fat calculations.
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  • 10/05/16: Biomechanics (commonly referred to as “form”) is the study of movement. Proper biomechanics promotes safety and positioning for maximum output of working muscles.
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  • 10/06/16: Testosterone is called the male hormone. Estrogen is called the female hormone. Although identified with a specific gender, both hormones are found in women and men.
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  • 10/07/16: Arnold Schwarzenegger compared the feeling of a “pump” (blood engorged muscles) to that of an orgasm in the 1977 bodybuilding documentary Pumping Iron.
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  • 10/08/16: Many primary differences between women and men, in relation to performance and metabolism, can be explained by size and body composition rather than gender.
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  • 10/09/16: Exercising in cold temperatures can help reduce body fat. This is due to the activation of brown fat cells, which promotes the burning of bad, white fat cells.
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  • 10/10/16: Capsaicinoids, a group of chemicals found in chili peppers have been shown to stimulate metabolism, increase energy expenditure, increase lipid oxidation, and reduce appetite.
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  • 10/11/16: Periodization is both a strength and cardiovascular technique where resistance, speed, reps, sets, and rest periods are purposefully varied to avoid training plateaus.
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  • 10/12/16: Spinach contains ecdysterone, a phytoecdysteroid which produces an anabolic effect and can act as a natural steroid in the human body.
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  • 10/13/16: Consuming a slow digesting protein, such as casein immediately before sleep stimulates protein synthesis and promotes muscle growth.
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  • 10/14/16: Sleep deprivation causes levels of leptin, a hormone that suppresses appetite to decrease and levels of ghrelin, a hormone that promotes appetite to increase.
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  • 10/15/16: Fat in the marrow of bones, organs, muscles, and central nervous system is essential fat, whereas fat that accumulates in adipose tissue is storage fat (or non-essential).
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  • 10/16/16: Studies show that the color red stimulates appetite, whereas the color blue suppresses appetite.
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  • 10/17/16: Muscle does not turn into fat when you stop working out. This myth is a physical impossibility; there is no biological pathway to support muscles conversion to fat.
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  • 10/18/16: Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a form of sugar that is predominantly processed in the liver and is a poor nutritional choice for rapid glycogen restoration in muscles post-exercise.
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  • 10/19/16: Contrary to popular belief, muscles can not push. Muscles can only pull or contract.
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  • 10/20/16: The human body commonly sends signals of hunger when it is dehydrated, sleep-deprived, or stressed.
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  • 10/21/16: Negative-calorie foods require more energy to digest than they provide. While theoretically viable, no reputable scientific study has proven certain foods have this effect.
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  • 10/22/16: Consuming moderate amounts of high-quality dark chocolate can help improve cardiovascular health.
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  • 10/23/16: Dysmorphobia is a psychiatric condition, characterized as a fixation on imaginary flaws in physical appearance, and often associated with bodybuilders.
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  • 10/24/16: Irisin cited as the “exercise hormone,” is a new scientific discovery believed to help maintain healthy body weight, reduce fat storage, improve cognition, and slow the aging process.
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  • 10/25/16: As of 2016, the average demographics of an elite professional level male bodybuilder is age 38, with a height of 5 ft 8 in (172.72 cm), and a weight of 243 lb (110.2 kg).
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  • 10/26/16: There is no evidence that supports a gluten-free diet is healthier or beneficial for individuals that have not been medically diagnosed with a sensitivity, allergy, or Celiac disease.
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  • 10/27/16: Some experts believe that there may be a link between grunting and performance enhancement, despite limited research studies and inconclusive results. 
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  • 10/28/16: The consumption of whey protein has several potential benefits including increased protein synthesis for muscle development and appetite suppression for weight loss.
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  • 10/29/16: According to research listening to music while exercising can increase endurance, intensity, and motivation while providing a distraction from discomfort.
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  • 10/30/16: The deadlift is a compound movement that benefits the back, glutes, legs, abdominals, arms, and shoulders as well as leads to improved strength and stability.
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  • 10/31/16: Andrew Bryniarski, former bodybuilder-turned-actor, portrayed Leatherface in the 2003 remake and 2006 prequel of The Texas Chain Saw Massacre.
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  • 11/01/16: Conventional wisdom states that when weight training for strength use a rep range of 1-6, for size 8-12, and for endurance 20 or higher. Studies have proven this debatable. 
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  • 11/02/16: Physical education (PE) programs reduce stress and improve self-esteem, yet in the U.S. only 4% of elementary, 8% of middle, and 2% of high schools offer a PE program. 
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  • 11/03/16: Contrary to media hype, numerous research studies show that artificial sweeteners, such as those found in diet beverages, do not increase hunger or cause weight gain. 
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  • 11/04/16: According to a study published by the University of Virginia, 50% of individuals that begin structured exercise programs drop out within six months.
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  • 11/05/16: According to the Boston Medical Center, “An estimated 45 million Americans diet each year and spend $33 billion annually on weight loss products.”
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  • 11/06/16: On average men burn 101 calories during sex, while women burn 69. In other words, 4.2 calories per minute for men and 3.1 calories per minute for women.
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  • 11/07/16: Obesity refers to an excess amount of body fat. More than one-third of U.S. adults are considered to be obese.
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  • 11/08/16: More than 80% of adult Americans do not meet the current federal physical activity guidelines for both aerobic and muscle-strengthening.
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  • 11/09/16: Age-related muscle loss (or sarcopenia) is estimated to affect 45% of the U.S. population. The primary treatment for sarcopenia is exercise, specifically resistance training.
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  • 11/10/16: Maintaining a food diary can double a person’s weight loss according to a study from Kaiser Permanente's Center for Health Research.
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  • 11/11/16: Exercise and topical creams are ineffective treatment methods to tighten loose, saggy skin after extreme weight loss. Surgery is the only proven method of elimination.
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  • 11/12/16: Cinnamon has beneficial effects on many factors associated with metabolic syndrome, including insulin sensitivity, inflammation, blood pressure, and body weight.
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  • 11/13/16: Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse resulted in a total of 19 fatal cases between 1990 and 2012, in which the autopsy excluded in all cases, extracardiac causes of death.
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  • 11/14/16: Research shows that marijuana users have a lower body mass index (or BMI) compared to nonusers and its use may lead to a decrease in obesity.
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  • 11/15/16: The average healthy body fat range for men is between 8-24% depending on age. The average healthy body fat range for women is between 17-35% depending on age.
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  • 11/16/16: Frequent sauna use can be a protective factor against the risk of sudden cardiac death (or SCD), coronary heart disease (or CHD), and cardiovascular disease (or CVD).
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  • 11/17/16: On an average day, Americans age 15 and over spend 2 hours and 49 minutes watching TV and only 17 minutes participating in sports or exercise.
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  • 11/18/16: 50% of Americans take multivitamins on a regular basis. 
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  • 11/19/16: According to pedometer research studies, Americans walk approximately 30 to 40 minutes less each day than people located in other countries.
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  • 11/20/16: A person that weighs 150 lbs (68 kg), walking at a pace of 2 mph (3.2 kph), requires approximately 50 minutes to burn off a 12-ounce serving of Coca-Cola.
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  • 11/21/16: The average body weight of an American male age 20 and over is 195.5 lbs (88.7 kg). The average body weight of an American female age 20 and over is 166.2 lbs (75.4 kg).
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  • 11/22/16: Proven methods to promote the appearance of vascularity include reducing body fat and water retention and increasing body temperature.
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  • 11/23/16: Fat-free foods are often high in sugar. As an example, some varieties of fat-free fruit yogurt may contain as much as 180% more sugar than plain Greek yogurt.
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  • 11/24/16: According to the Calorie Control Council, the average American consumes approximately 4,500 calories on Thanksgiving day.
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  • 11/25/16: The median waist size for an American age 20 and over is 39.7 inches (100.8 cm) for a man and 37.5 inches (95.3 cm) for a woman.
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  • 11/26/16: Research suggests that regular exercise can yield a 6-10% higher salary.
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  • 11/27/16: Astronauts aboard the space station exercise an average of two hours per day using modified equipment for microgravity to prevent bone and muscle loss.
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  • 11/28/16: Resting metabolic rate (or RMR) is increased by adding muscle mass. A pound of sedentary muscle burns an estimated 6 calories per day.
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  • 11/29/16: Running 5-10 minutes per day improves cardiovascular health and may increase longevity by as much as three years. Running for longer periods can cause more harm than good.
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  • 11/30/16: Swapping hot showers for cold showers can increase alertness, stimulate weight loss, improve muscle recovery, and reduce muscle soreness.
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  • 12/01/16: Testosterone levels are typically highest in the morning, gradually decline throughout the day, and are lowest in the evening. 
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  • 12/02/16: Drinking distilled water is a controversial topic. Studies suggest a loss of calcium, magnesium, and other essential elements from its use, while some doctors cite its health benefits.
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  • 12/03/16: Being underweight can be as unhealthy as being overweight. Underweight individuals have a higher risk of osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and are more prone to dementia.
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  • 12/04/16: The first gymnasium in the United States was established in 1825, in the state of Massachusetts, by Doctor Charles Beck, a German immigrant.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [152]
     
  • 12/05/16: On average, American adults consume nearly 100 calories per day from alcoholic beverages. Women consume fewer calories from alcoholic beverages than men.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [153]
     
  • 12/06/16: In 1970, at the age of 23, Arnold Schwarzenegger became the youngest winner of the Mr. Olympia title.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [154]
     
  • 12/07/16: Approximately 90% of Americans consume more sodium than the recommended dietary allowance (or RDA) for adults of less than 2,300 mg daily.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [155]
     
  • 12/08/16: Dietary supplement manufacturers and distributors are not required to obtain approval from the FDA before marketing a dietary supplement product to the public.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [156]
     
  • 12/09/16: The body will use its stored fat as energy after approximately 10-16 hours of fasting.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [157]
     
  • 12/10/16: Many major health insurance providers offer discounts of up to 30% on monthly gym membership fees.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [158]
     
  • 12/11/16: Chocolate is a very highly craved food item. Studies cite caffeine, addictive psychoactive substances found in chocolate, and magnesium deficiency as possible causations.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [159]
     
  • 12/12/16: As of 2016, statistical research shows that the average cost of a gym membership is $58.00 per month and that 67% of the people with a gym membership never use it.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [160]
     
  • 12/13/16: Physical fitness can be segmented into three components, strength, endurance, and flexibility. The combination of these three components creates a fitness routine.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [161]
     
  • 12/14/16: The consumption of medium chain triglycerides (or MCT), such as MCT oil, has shown to increase energy, suppress appetite, and lead to weight and fat mass loss.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [162]
     
  • 12/15/16: Reports project that by the year 2030, there will be an increase of 11 million more obese adults in the United Kingdom and 65 million more obese adults in the United States.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [163, 126]
     
  • 12/16/16: Carbohydrate is stored as glycogen in the body. Glycogen retains roughly 3 grams of water for every 1 gram of glycogen. A healthy adult can store about 500 grams of carbohydrate.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [164]
     
  • 12/17/16: Sodium is an essential element that regulates water in cells and facilitates muscle contraction and nerve cell transmission.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [165]
     
  • 12/18/16: A 2014 survey revealed that 30% of health or fitness mobile application usage in the United States was goal tracking (primary use case), and 27% was for motivation.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [166]
     
  • 12/19/16: The glycemic index is a ranking system for carbohydrates and a tool used to monitor blood glucose levels, digestion, and the absorption of the sugars and starches from food.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [167]
     
  • 12/20/16: Fasted cardio offers no additional benefit to fat loss and body composition when compared to cardio performed during a fed state.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [168]
     
  • 12/21/16: Massage therapy can reduce muscle tension, soreness, and pain. Post-exercise massage can improve the rate of recovery and exercise performance in bodybuilders.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [169]
     
  • 12/22/16: Sugar alcohol, a reduced-calorie sweetener, may have a role in weight management; however, high consumption may lead to a laxative-like effect, diarrhea, and bloating.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [170]
     
  • 12/23/16: In 2015, Colorado led the United States with the lowest rate of physical inactivity amongst adults at 16.4%. Mississippi had the highest rate at 31.6%.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [171]
     
  • 12/24/16: Taurine aids in heart health, muscle function, and may benefit athletic performance. Taurine is found in meat and fish or produced synthetically; it is not extracted from bulls. 
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [172]
     
  • 12/25/16: A Christmas tree back is a reference to a thick lower back with well-developed spinal erectors. The bodybuilding term gets its name from its distinctive Christmas tree shape.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [173]
     
  • 12/26/16: According to research, people who make resolutions are tenfold more likely to attain their goals. In 2015, staying fit and healthy was the fifth highest ranked goal of Americans.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [174]
     
  • 12/27/16: Green coffee (or unroasted coffee) extract has been touted as a weight loss supplement; however, actual results are inconclusive, additional research is required.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [175]
     
  • 12/28/16: Caffeine increases physical performance an average of 12%. The meta-analysis of forty double-blind research studies confirm the ergogenic effects of caffeine.
    [Facebook I Twitter | Instagram] [176]
     
  • 12/29/16: Research suggests that exercising with a partner perceived to be more fit can increase workout time and intensity up to 200%; this is potentially due to the Köhler effect.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [177]
     
  • 12/30/16: Stress recovery may be a health benefit of black tea. Research shows that drinking black tea four times per day for six weeks can lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [178]
     
  • 12/31/16: While known to inhibit muscle growth, the moderate consumption of alcohol may offer cardiovascular benefits including a lower risk of heart attack and stroke.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [179, 16]
     
  • 01/01/17: Massage helps to reduce muscle tightness, increase blood flow, stretch muscle fibers, and break down scar tissue as well as potentially reduce impeding muscle tears.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [180, 169]
     
  • 01/02/17: Eugen Sandow, born Friedrich Wilhelm Müller; 1867, is known as the first famous bodybuilder and the father of modern bodybuilding.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [181]
     
  • 01/03/17: Drinking roughly 16 ounces (500 milliliters) of water, about 30 minutes before a meal, has been proven to reduce food consumption and promote weight loss by up to 44%.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [182]
     
  • 01/04/17: Safe resistance training progress entails increasing weight 5-10% once you can properly perform 12 repetitions of an exercise, according to the American Council on Exercise.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [183]
     
  • 01/05/17: New research suggests that identifying oneself as a doer (or “self-as-doer identity”) promotes positive results. For example, “I am a healthy eater” results in a healthier diet.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [184]
     
  • 01/06/17: Added sugars, defined as sweeteners added to beverages and prepared and processed foods have been linked to increased body weight and decreased essential micronutrients.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [185]
     
  • 01/07/17: On average, obese individuals have medical expenses that are approximately 42% higher than individuals of normal weight.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [186]
     
  • 01/08/17: White eggs and brown eggs have the same nutritional value. Brown eggs are laid by larger, red-earlobe hens that require more feed and thereby tend to be more expensive.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [187]
     
  • 01/09/17: Training on a low-carbohydrate diet, for extended periods of time, can result in the down-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [188]
     
  • 01/10/17: During exercise, carbohydrate is broken down for energy resulting in increased lactic acid levels and discomfort. Levels return to normal within 20-60 minutes post-exercise.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [189]
     
  • 01/11/17: Research confirms that some thermogenic agents are capable of increasing the basal metabolic rate (BMR), which counteracts the decrease in BMR present during weight loss.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [190]
     
  • 01/12/17: Resistance training has an anti-aging effect; it has proven to not only slow but also to reverse the aging process at the gene level.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [191]
     
  • 01/13/17: The fat cells of women are up to five times larger than the fat cells of men.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [192]
     
  • 01/14/17: Progressive resistance training is believed to date back to Ancient Greece when Milo of Croton trained by carrying a newborn calf on his back daily until it was full grown.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [193]
     
  • 01/15/17: Muscle spasms (or cramps) are sudden, involuntary muscle contractions, often associated with over-stimulation, dehydration, and electrolyte abnormalities.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [194]
     
  • 01/16/17: Babies are born with all of the muscle fibers they will ever have. Muscle tissue represents approximately 18-24% of a newborn's total body weight.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [195]
     
  • 01/17/17: “Use it or lose it,” muscle atrophy (or muscle wasting) is the loss of muscle tissue. The primary cause of muscle atrophy is a lack of physical activity.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [196]
     
  • 01/18/17: Discrimination, poor body image, and low self-esteem are higher risk plausible psychological consequences suffered by overweight children.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram ] [197, 120]
     
  • 01/19/17: Sleep is crucial for muscle growth and recovery. Adults need 7-8 hours of sleep per day, yet in a recent survey, 30% of adults reported an average of ≤6 hours sleep per day.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [198]
     
  • 01/20/17: Teenage girls that are both physically active and participant in team sports are less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior or use drugs.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [199]
     
  • 01/21/17: The American College of Sports Medicine states that 150-250 minutes weekly of moderate-intensity physical activity can prevent weight gain and promote modest weight loss.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [200]
     
  • 01/22/17: According to Penn State researchers, young women may benefit more from exercise than calcium consumption for proper bone health.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [201]
     
  • 01/23/17: No time for exercise? One minute of sprint interval training (or SIT) yields health benefits similar to that of longer, traditional endurance training, according to researchers.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [202]
     
  • 01/24/17: Food intolerances, food sensitivities, and weight problems are connected. Testing for and identifying these conditions along with diet alterations can yield significant weight loss.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [203]
     
  • 01/25/17: The Paleo Diet consists of foods found and consumed during the Paleolithic era (or Old Stone Age), in general, this includes meats, fish, fruits, vegetables, berries, nuts, and seeds.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [204]
     
  • 01/26/17: Using a food scale teaches proper portion control. According to a national survey, people who weighed their food had better weight loss results than those who did not. 
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [205, 128]
     
  • 01/27/17: Mood control is a key motivator for weight training. Researchers hypothesize that bodybuilding may be a coping mechanism for stress manifesting as aggression.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [206]
     
  • 01/28/17: Watermelons are rich in the amino acid L-citrulline. Consuming watermelon juice can relieve post-exercise muscle soreness. 
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [207]
     
  • 01/29/17: The consumption of saturated fat and androgen production are connected. Androgen influences gender role behavior and the development of physical characteristics.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [208]
     
  • 01/30/17: A chronic high-fat diet (or HFD) can induce insulin resistance, increase fat mass, lead to obesity, and might even adversely affect learning and memory, according to research.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [209]
     
  • 01/31/17: The ketogenic diet is a low-carbohydrate diet, high-fat diet, a common macro nutritional ratio is 1 gram carbohydrate for every 3-4 grams of fat.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [210, 209]
     
  • 02/01/17: A ketogenic diet helps to control seizures in some individuals with epilepsy and may also offer benefits against Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and even cancer.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [211, 210]
     
  • 02/02/17: Individuals with chronic psychological stress, both life event stress, and perceived stress, take longer to recover from strenuous resistance exercise.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [212]
     
  • 02/03/17: Despite popular belief, the tongue is not the strongest muscle in the human body. The tongue is actually comprised of eight different muscles.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [213, 15]
     
  • 02/04/17: The American Heart Association advocates guided, moderate weight training as beneficial for some individuals with heart disease.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [214]
     
  • 02/05/17: The IRS considers costs incurred for the treatment of weight loss (including related group membership and meeting fees) to be allowable expenses when diagnosed as obesity.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [215]
     
  • 02/06/17: Running and jogging are the most popular outdoor activities in the United States. Children ages 6 to 12 have the highest rate of participation in outdoor activities.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [216]
     
  • 02/07/17: Recreational drugs (e.g., cocaine, heroin, and marijuana) can adversely affect the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis and decrease endogenous testosterone production.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [217]
     
  • 02/08/17: Elevated anabolic hormones drive amino acids into the cell for protein formation. According to Dr. Mauro Di Pasquale, this is achievable through diet (e.g., the Anabolic Diet). 
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [218]
     
  • 02/09/17: In the absence of carbohydrate, such as a “no carb” diet, the body is capable of converting protein into glucose (a type of carbohydrate), this process is called gluconeogenesis.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [219]
     
  • 02/10/17: Not all medical experts agree that multivitamins are beneficial. Contradictory research conclusions exist, and some experts advise that high consumption can be harmful.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [220]
     
  • 02/11/17: The average adult female body is comprised of approximately 55% water. The average adult male body is comprised of approximately 60% water.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [221]
     
  • 02/12/17: Total body water (or TBW) temporarily increases by the amount of water consumed. Two cups of water weigh about 1 lb (0.45 kg); one gallon weighs approximately 8.3 lbs (3.76 kg).
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [222]
     
  • 02/13/17: A person that weighs 150 lbs (68 kg) will burn about 430 calories per hour by shoveling snow; optimistic- ally this could be deemed a probable silver lining to a cold winter day.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [223]
     
  • 02/14/17: During exercise, adenosine triphosphate (or ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (or ADP) ratios decline and can lead to muscle fatigue. Consuming creatine helps maintain ATP:ADP ratios.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [224]
     
  • 02/15/17: According to the Cleveland Clinic, moderate physical activity increases heart rate, induces sweat, and is characterized by the ability to talk during the activity, but not sing.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [225]
     
  • 02/16/17: A calorie is a unit used to measure energy. It represents the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of pure water 1 degree Celsius.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [226]
     
  • 02/17/17: High saturated and trans fat consumption has been linked to cognitive decline. Whereas, sustaining a higher saturated to polyunsaturated fat ratio may be beneficial for cognition.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [227]
     
  • 02/18/17: Consuming caffeine before working out can help delay the depletion of muscle glycogen, according to the American College of Sports Medicine.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [228]
     
  • 02/19/17: Myofascial release can improve circulation, relax muscles, and relieve pain. There is currently no consensus on an optimal self-myofascial release (or SMR) protocol.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [229]
     
  • 02/20/17: 61% of Baby Boomers and 76% of Millennials are regular exercisers.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [230]
     
  • 02/21/17: Calf muscles (gastrocnemius, plantaris, soleus, and tibialis anterior) resist hypertrophy; as a result, calves are often cited as one of the most difficult to build.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [231]
     
  • 02/22/17: The human body consists of three types of muscle tissue: cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, and smooth muscle (or visceral muscle tissue).
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [232]
     
  • 02/23/17: Animal meat consumed for sustenance is primarily muscle tissue and is approximately 75% water and 20% protein; the remaining 5% is a mix of carbohydrate, fats, and minerals.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [233]
     
  • 02/24/17: Not all cinnamon is equal. Cassia cinnamon, but not Ceylon, contains high levels of coumarin, which can be toxic and may cause kidney, liver, and lung damage.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [234]
     
  • 02/25/17: Strength is cited as a cue for dominance. With that said, it is stated that chimpanzees are 3-5 times stronger than humans. And caterpillars have roughly 75% more muscles.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [235]
     
  • 02/26/17: Sweating has many health benefits including body temperature regulation and the trace expulsion of some toxins. The human body contains 625 sweat glands per square inch. 
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [236]
     
  • 02/27/17: At 1-2% water loss (or dehydration), thirst is perceived by the body. Additional water loss can result in decreased athletic performance or worse.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [237]
     
  • 02/28/17: A newborn has around 300 bones, whereas an adult has only 206. A reason for this difference is attributed to the cartilage to bone conversion process (or endochondral ossification).
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [238]
     
  • 03/01/17: According to the Foundation for Gender-Specific Medicine, “food takes twice as long to pass through the digestive system of women compared with that of men.”
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [239]
     
  • 03/02/17: Glucose is stored in the muscles as glycogen. Overloading glycogen storage can result in visually larger, more full muscles. Consuming certain candies can yield this effect.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [240]
     
  • 03/03/17: Research suggests that Montmorency tart cherries can aid in the recovery process after strenuous exercise.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [241]
     
  • 03/04/17: Men and women typically achieve maximum strength between the ages of 20 and 30 years.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [242]
     
  • 03/05/17: Muscle fibers yield an all-or-none response; this means when a muscle fiber is stimulated, it will contract to its fullest potential. 
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [243]
     
  • 03/06/17: An occasional workout is unlikely to show significant results; typically, one’s fitness level will start to improve after 2-3 weeks, with measurable improvement after 4-6 weeks.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [244]
     
  • 03/07/17: The National Physique Committee (or NPC) is an entry point to amateur bodybuilding. The International Federation of Bodybuilders (or IFBB) is the professional level.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [245]
     
  • 03/08/17: During a heavy workout session, microscopic tears occur in the muscle fibers, the body, in turn, repairs the torn muscle fibers, over time this results in larger, stronger muscles.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [246]
     
  • 03/09/17: If all the muscles in the human body were to pull in one direction, at the same time, it would generate a force of approximately 50,000 lbs (22679.6 kg).
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [247]
     
  • 03/10/17: On average, men have approximately 6-11% less body fat than women. 
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [248]
     
  • 03/11/17: FST-7 is a training principle created by Hany Rambod. FST stands for fascia stretch training; seven refers to the number of sets performed as the final exercise for the targeted body part.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [249]
     
  • 03/12/17: Some prescription drugs can lower the metabolism and cause weight gain, for example, certain medications used to treat depression.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [250]
     
  • 03/13/17: Breathing can benefit resistance training. Engage with a slightly deeper breath. Slowly exhale while working against the resistance. Inhale again and return to the start position.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [251]
     
  • 03/14/17: The thyroid gland plays a significant role in metabolism and growth. The two primary thyroid hormones are triiodothyronine (or T3) and thyroxine (or T4).
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [252]
     
  • 03/15/17: The arrector pili muscle (or APM) connects the hair follicle to connective tissue. Contractions of the APM cause hair to stand upright, often referred to as goose bumps.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [253]
     
  • 03/16/17: Performing moderate-intensity cardiovascular exercise prior to strength training can help keep testosterone levels elevated longer as well as benefit the heart-rate response.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [254]
     
  • 03/17/17: Myostatin regulates the size of muscles by inhibiting muscles from growing too large. Studies on myostatin inhibitors (e.g., ACE-31) have halted due to safety concerns.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [255]
     
  • 03/18/17: In a recent human study, epicatechin, an antioxidant flavonoid found in green tea and chocolate was shown to successfully increase grip strength by ~7% in 7 days.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [256]
     
  • 03/19/17: A 2011-2012 survey shows that less than 2% of American adults have a body mass index (or BMI) of less than 18.5, and therefore can be classified as underweight.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [257]
     
  • 03/20/17: The top fitness trend for 2016 and 2017 is wearable technology (e.g., smart watches, activity trackers, and heart rate monitors), according to ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [258]
     
  • 03/21/17: Many former Mr. Olympia professional bodybuilders (e.g., Kai Greene, Jay Cutler) offer online fee-based consulting services to assist amateur athletes with diet and training.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [259]
     
  • 03/22/17: Americans spend over $60 billion annually to lose weight; the range of expenditures is vast and includes everything from gym memberships, to weight-loss programs, even diet soda.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [260]
     
  • 03/23/17: It takes approximately 20 minutes from the time a person starts to eat for the brain to send out signals of fullness. Thus, a greater sense of fullness is achievable by eating slower.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [261]
     
  • 03/24/17: Studies suggest that the consumption of a caffeine-containing pre-workout dietary supplement, taken before exercise, may improve anaerobic power performance.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [262, 176]
     
  • 03/25/17: CBS Sports will televise the Mr. Olympia 2017 competition, according to Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [263]
     
  • 03/26/17: Study suggests that consuming one-half of a Hass avocado at lunch can lead to a 40% decrease in desire to eat and a 26% increase in fullness over a 3 hour period.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [264]
     
  • 03/27/17: Drinking water, prior to meals, can be a valuable tool to help avoid overeating. Additionally, another trick may be to eat vegetables, as they generally contain 90-96% water.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [265, 182]
     
  • 03/28/17: Steelworkers, fitness trainers, and dancers are currently the top three most physically active jobs in the U.S., based on data from O*NET (or Occupational Information Network).
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [266]
     
  • 03/29/17: The U.S. reports over 3 million cases of muscle strain each year. Symptoms include pain, swelling, and spasms. Preventative measures include proper diet and daily exercise.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [267]
     
  • 03/30/17: Excessive sodium consumption can cause serious health issues as well as headaches and water retention. Water retention can lead to bloating and weight gain.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [268, 155]
     
  • 03/31/17: Agave nectar is touted as a healthy alternative to table sugar, yet it contains 70-90% fructose; table sugar contains 50%. High amounts of fructose can lead to insulin resistance.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [269]
     
  • 04/01/17: Arnold Schwarzenegger once told an impressionable bodybuilder that to resemble a champion “he must eat an ever increasing mixture of ground-up nutshells and salt.”
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [270]
     
  • 04/02/17: Bodybuilders often use Niacin (or vitamin B3) for its vasodilation effect. High doses of niacin can cause “flushing,” which can temporarily increase the appearance of vascularity.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [271]
     
  • 04/03/17: 56% of women agree that seeing successful female athletes makes them feel proud to be a woman, according to an Oxygen/Markle Pulse poll. 
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [272]
     
  • 04/04/17: Research suggests that acetic acid, the main active ingredient found in apple cider vinegar may help suppress appetite, improve metabolism, burn fat, and reduce fat storage.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [273]
     
  • 04/05/17: Soluble fiber absorbs water and forms a gel that helps slow food digestion. Studies show that soluble fiber may also help decrease the overall amount of calories absorbed.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [274]
     
  • 04/06/17: A sugar alcohol is a form of carbohydrate. The body absorbs half the sugar in sugar alcohol. When “counting carbs,” subtract half of the sugar alcohols from the total carb count.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [275]
     
  • 04/07/17: The human body has specialized cells to store excess carbohydrate and fat; however, there are no specialized cells to store protein. 
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [276]
     
  • 04/08/17: In general, coffee provides more caffeine per 8-ounce serving than tea and energy drinks.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [277]
     
  • 04/09/17: Brown rice is typically considered healthier than white rice as it is higher in nutrients and fiber. Studies also associate brown rice with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. 
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [278]
     
  • 04/10/17: Unsweetened almond milk is a low-carb alternative to cow’s milk. It contains about 1.5 grams carb per cup whereas low-fat cow’s milk contains approximately 12 grams. 
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [279]
     
  • 04/11/17: Milk contains two major types of protein, the breakdown by type is roughly 80% casein protein and 20% whey protein. In total milk contains 3.3% protein. 
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [280]
     
  • 04/12/17: L-carnitine, sometimes used as a weight loss supplement, is an amino acid derivative that helps transport fatty acids into the mitochondria for energy production.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [281]
     
  • 04/13/17: According to research studies, each additional hour of sleep can raise testosterone levels an average of 15%.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [282]
     
  • 04/14/17: Hemp protein powders are rich in omega-3 fatty acids and essential amino acids. Hemp protein is not a complete protein due to low levels of the amino acids lysine and leucine.
  • [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [283]
     
  • 04/15/17: Probiotics, touted for their health benefits when consumed, can be defined as live bacteria (or microorganisms) found in certain foods and dietary supplements.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [284]
     
  • 04/16/17: Some polyphenols found in oolong tea are believed to boost metabolism. A recent study suggested that consuming oolong tea may help burn 2.9–3.4% more total calories per day.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [285]
     
  • 04/17/17: Mental health issues, such as depression, can be linked to poor sleep quality. An estimated 90% of patients with depression complain about sleep quality.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [286]
     
  • 04/18/17: The HCG diet is a 500 calorie per day diet supplemented with HCG. Studies suggest that associated weight loss results are due to the low caloric intake and not HCG.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [287]
     
  • 04/19/17: Skipping meals, or simply not consuming enough calories daily, can decrease metabolism speed.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [288]
     
  • 04/20/17: According to one study, supplementing roughly 3,000 IU of vitamin D3 per day can increase testosterone levels by 25%.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [289]
     
  • 04/21/17: An estimated 65-75% of the world’s population is lactose intolerant and can not properly break down milk sugar (or lactose).
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [290]
     
  • 04/22/17: Brown rice contains bran and germ; it is rich in antioxidants and fiber. White rice has been purposefully stripped of both bran and germ to extend shelf life and improve taste.
    [Facebook | Twitter | Instagram] [291, 278]
     
  • 04/23/17: Casein protein promotes the absorption of the amino acid leucine.
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Repeat with confidence. All Married Muscle Fun Facts are 100% verifiable.
View Fun Facts Source References, click here.